Vestibular neuronitis, also called Vestibular neuritis, can be a paroxysmal, single attack of vertigo, a series of attacks, or a persistent condition that diminishes over three to six weeks. It is a type of unilateral vestibular dysfunction and may be associated with nausea, vomiting, and previous upper respiratory tract infections. It generally has no auditory symptoms, unlike labyrinthitis. Vestibular neuronitis may also be associated with eye nystagmus. The cause is not clearly understood, and the term "neuronitis" is inaccurate because there is no evidence of inflammation, but is retained due to its common usage. It appears to be caused by an imbalance of neuronal input between the left and right inner ears.
The main symptoms of vestibular neuronitis are sudden onset of vertigo, often with nausea and vomiting, made worse by head movement. A common indication is horizontal nystagmus with the fast beat towards the healthy ear. It can be preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection.
Other patients will have no viral prodrome, and may have acute localised ischaemia of the vestibular ganglion.